However, in the next election of Donald Trump as president, he campaigned to repeal and replace Obamacare and came up with a seven-point plan for healthcare reform. With this seven point plan President Trump discussed that the healthcare system would work based on free market principles.
Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem.
The legislative history of federal crack sentencing laws, for example, provides reason "to suspect that regardless of the objectives Congress was pursuing, it would have shown more restraint in fashioning the crack penalties or more interest in amending them in ensuing years, if the penalties did not apply almost exclusively to blacks.
Politicians have been able to reap the electoral rewards of endorsing harsh drug policies because the group that suffered most from those policies-black Americans-lacked the numbers to use the political process to secure a different strategy.
It could have restricted prison to only the most serious drug offenders e. Instead, federal and state governments embraced harsh penal sanctions to battle the use of drugs and their sale to consumers.
But the choice of arrest and imprisonment as the primary anti-drug strategy evokes the infamous phrase from the Vietnam War: A Human Rights Framework For the War on Drugs In a fair, equitable, and non-discriminatory criminal justice system, sanctions should be imposed equally on offending populations.
Yet the racial patterns of persons arrested and incarcerated on drug charges are distantly related, at best, to racial patterns of drug offending.
There may be explanations for the disparate impact, but can it be reconciled with principles of equal protection and non-discrimination?
United States Law Drug laws are race-neutral on their face. Their enforcement is also ostensibly race-neutral, with law enforcement officials insisting they enforce the law without bias and in response to community concerns.
Under longstanding constitutional jurisprudence in the United States, facially race-neutral governmental policies do not violate the guarantee of equal protection unless there is both discriminatory impact and discriminatory purpose.
As Professor Lawrence Tribe has noted, the U. Supreme Court has decided that every lawsuit involving claims of racial discrimination directed at facially race-neutral rules would be conducted as a search for a "bigoted-decision-maker". If such actors cannot be found-and the standards for finding them are tough indeed-then there has been no violation of the equal protection clause.
Harsher sentences for crack cocaine offenses compared to powder have repeatedly passed that test, with the courts easily deciding that legislators were pursuing a legitimate goal in trying to curtail drug abuse and that more severe sentences for crack were rationally related to that goal.
As law professor David Cole has observed, racial inequalities in the criminal justice system "do not step from explicit and intentional race or class discrimination, but they are problems of inequality nonetheless. It offers no relief from high rates of black incarceration that have been produced by "racial politics, not by a crime wave,"  and that reflect as well as contribute to the perpetuation of white dominance.
Tied to the anachronistic requirement of intent, equal protection jurisprudence has not been able to provide relief to victims of ostensibly color-blind practices that so deeply prejudice black Americans.
It has thus failed to achieve one of its central purposes: Racial Discrimination Under International Human Rights Law Equality among all people, including among persons of different races, has been deemed "the most important principle imbuing and inspiring the concept of human rights.
The equality inherent in all human beings regardless of race and the concomitant right of all human beings to be protected against racial discrimination is affirmed in the core human rights treaties that have followed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is the most complete expression of the international community's commitment to the principle of racial equality and the right to be free of racial discrimination.
Although the Committee "merely observes and comments on States Parties' practices, the comments should be acted on accordingly.
The Committee's country-specific observations and general comments may be considered the official "jurisprudence" of ICERD. The Committee does not have any power to compel a State to accept and act on its recommendations and there is no system of sanctions for States who refuse to do so.The economic impact of illegal immigrants in the United States is challenging to measure and politically contentious.
Since it is a challenging field to quantify, it leaves room for varying methodologies of study, and so the definitive results of the economic impact can change.
One possibility is that foreign workers entering the country illegally can lower wages and increase overall costs of. Updated statistics from the Outdoor Recreation Satellite Account (ORSA) released today by the U.S.
Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) show that the outdoor recreation economy accounted for percent ($ billion) of current-dollar GDP in Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more.
iResearch predicts the united states polycarbonate market to grow from USD heartoftexashop.com million in to USD heartoftexashop.com million by , at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of heartoftexashop.com%.
The year has been considered as the base year, while the forecast period is up to The world's most comprehensive market research on consumer products, commercial industries, demographics trends and consumer lifestyles in the USA.
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