Commentary on social and moral issues of the day Judaism's Sexual Revolution:
But if any harm follow — then thou shall give life for life" Ex. According to the Septuagint the term "harm" applied to the fetus and not to the woman, and a distinction is drawn between the abortion of a fetus which has not yet assumed complete shape — for which there is the monetary penalty — and the abortion of a fetus which has assumed complete shape — for which the penalty is "life for life.
Geiger deduces from this the existence of an ancient law according to which contrary to talmudic halakhah the penalty for aborting a fetus of completed shape was death Ha-Mikra ve-Targumav, —1, —4. The talmudic scholars, however, maintained that the word "harm" refers to the woman and not to the fetus, since the scriptural injunction, "He that smiteth a man so that he dieth, shall surely be put to death" Ex.
Epstein-Melamed, ; also Mekh. Similarly, Josephus states that a person who causes the abortion of a woman's fetus as a result of kicking her shall pay a fine for "diminishing the population," in addition to paying monetary compensation to the husband, and that such a person shall be put to death if the woman dies of the blow Ant.
According to the laws of the ancient East Sumer, Assyria, the Hittitespunishment for inflicting an aborting blow was monetary and sometimes even flagellation, but not death except for one provision in Assyrian law concerning willful abortion, self-inflicted.
In the Code of Hammurapi no. If the woman should die, he who struck the blow shall be put to death. Mishpatim 4 and see Sanh.
In the view of R. Ishmael, only a Gentileto whom some of the basic transgressions applied with greater stringency, incurred the death penalty for causing the loss of the fetus Sanh.
Thus abortion, although prohibited, does not constitute murder Tos. The scholars deduced the prohibition against abortion by an a fortiori argument from the laws concerning abstention from procreation, or onanism, or having sexual relations with one's wife when likely to harm the fetus in her womb — the perpetrator whereof being regarded as "a shedder of blood" Yev.
This is apparently also the meaning of Josephus' statement that "the Law has commanded to raise all the children and prohibited women from aborting or destroying seed; a woman who does so shall be judged a murderess of children for she has caused a soul to be lost and the family of man to be diminished" Apion, 2: The Zohar explains that the basis of the prohibition against abortion is that "a person who kills the fetus in his wife's womb desecrates that which was built by the Holy One and His craftsmanship.
By virtue of this Israel went out of bondage" Zohar, Ex. Abortion is permitted if the fetus endangers the mother's life. Thus, "if a woman travails to give birth [and it is feared she may die], one may sever the fetus from her womb and extract it, member by member, for her life takes precedence over his" Oho.
This is the case only as long as the fetus has not emerged into the world, when it is not a life at all and "it may be killed and the mother saved" Rashi and Meiri, Sanh. But, from the moment that the greater part of the fetus has emerged into the world — either its head only, or its greater part — it may not be touched, even if it endangers the mother's life: Even though one is enjoined to save a person who is being pursued, if necessary by killing the pursuer see Penal Lawthe law distinguishes between a fetus which has emerged into the world and a "pursuer," since "she [the mother] is pursued from heaven" Sanh.
However, when the mother's life is endangered, she herself may destroy the fetus — even if its greater part has emerged — "for even if in the eyes of others the law of a fetus is not as the law of a pursuer, the mother may yet regard the fetus as pursuing her" Meiri, ibid.
Contrary to the rule that a person is always fully liable for damage mu'ad le-olamwhether inadvertently or willfully caused bk 2: In the Codes Some authorities permit abortion only when there is danger to the life of the mother deriving from the fetus "because it is pursuing to kill her" Maim.
In the Kovno ghetto, at the time of the Holocaust, the Germans decreed that every Jewish woman falling pregnant shall be killed together with her fetus.
As a result, in Rabbi Ephraim Oshry decided that an abortion was permissible in order to save a pregnant woman from the consequences of the decree Mi-Ma'amakim, no.
The permissibility of abortion has also been discussed in relation to a pregnancy resulting from a prohibited i. In recent years the question of the permissibility of an abortion has also been raised in cases where there is the fear that birth may be given to a child suffering from a mental or physical defect because of an illness, such as rubeola or measles, contracted by the mother or due to the aftereffects of drugs, such as thalidomide, taken by her.
The general tendency is to uphold the prohibition against abortion in such cases, unless justified in the interests of the mother's health, which factor has, however, been deemed to extend to profound emotional or mental disturbance see: Unterman, Zweig, in bibliography. An important factor in deciding whether or not an abortion should be permitted is the stage of the pregnancy: Contemporary Authorities Contemporary halakhic authorities adopted a strict approach towards the problem of abortion.The Prophet Jeremiah condemned as Pagan the ancient Middle Eastern practice of cutting down trees, bringing them into the home and decorating them.
Homosexuality is the condition of "sexual desire or behavior directed toward a person or persons of one's own sex.". Homosexuality has a number of causal factors that influence its ultimate origination in individuals; these factors will be addressed shortly.
In addition, homosexuality has a variety of effects on individuals and heartoftexashop.com, some of the historical events, religious matters. Browse and subscribe to RSS feeds of Harvard University Press titles by subject, library, publishing partner, or series, and see a list of featured books and collections.
Homosexuality in China has been documented in China since ancient times. According to one study, homosexuality was regarded as a normal facet of life in China, prior to the Western impact of onwards.
However, this has been disputed. Several early Chinese emperors are speculated to have had homosexual relationships accompanied by heterosexual ones. Introduction. This idea for this essay arose out of material I had gathered for my Ph.D.
thesis on the representations of homosexuality in Japanese popular culture.
In order to contextualise modern understandings of homosexual desire as experienced between men and between women, I found it was necessary to go increasingly further back into Japanese history so that I might better understand the.
* Of 32, verses in the Bible, only five directly mention homosexuality. * The Qur'an only directly mentions homosexuality once. * Leviticus, the book of the Bible which stipulates death for homosexuality, requires the same punishment for adultery, pre-marital sex, disobedient children and.