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With the rise of Islam in the seventh century A. Over time the Arab identity lost its purely ethnic roots as millions in the Middle East and North Africa adopted the Arabic language and integrated Arab culture with that of their own. It embraces numerous national and regional groups as well as many non-Muslim religious minorities.
Arab Christians, particularly in the countries of Egypt and the Fertile Crescent Syria, Iraq, Palestine, and Jordan constitute roughly ten percent of the population. In Lebanon, Christians of various sects approach just under half of the population, while in Egypt, Christians comprise between ten and 15 percent of the population.
Previous estimates by scholars and Arab American community organizations placed the number of Arab Americans at between one and three million. The discrepancy is partly due to the standardization of Arabs in the United States, leading many to conceal their ethnic affiliation.
The traditional suspicion of Middle Easterners toward government authorities seeking information of a personal nature compounds this problem.
These two factors, along with standard problems in collecting census data, probably explain the discrepancy between the estimates of scholars and the actual census count.
Considering these factors, a revised estimate likely would place the number of Arab Americans in the range of one to two million. The census indicates that most Arab Americans are U. Arab Americans are geographically concentrated in a handful of cities and states.
Arab immigrants represent a tiny fraction of the overall migration to the United States, constituting less than three percent of the total. In her study of the census data, El-Badry found that more than 27, people from Arab countries immigrated to the United States in68 percent more than those who arrived ten years earlier, not including Palestinians from Israel or Israeli-occupied territory.
Approximately 20 percent of the 78, Arab immigrants who arrived in the United States between and were Lebanese.
The remainder were from Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq. The figures for Sudan and Yemen, though small in comparison, indicated rapid growth from these politically unstable countries.
Following the breakup of the Empire, the province was partitioned into the separate political entities of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Transjordan.
The vast majority of immigrants in this wave were members of Christian minorities. Although some writers claim that these immigrants left their native countries for religious or political reasons, the evidence suggests that they were drawn to the United States and other countries by economic opportunity.
Of the approximately 60, Arabs who emigrated to the United States between andapproximately half were illiterate, and 68 percent were single males. The early immigrants were mostly unskilled single men who had left their families behind.
Like many economically motivated immigrants during this period, Arabs left with the intention of earning money and returning home to live out the remainder of their lives in relative prosperity.
The major exception to this pattern was a small group of Arab writers, poets, and artists who took up residence in major urban centers such as New York and Boston. The most famous of the group was Kahlil Gibranauthor of The Prophet and numerous other works. Curiously, this literary circle, which came to be known as the Pen League al-Rabita al-Qalamiyya had a negligible influence on the early Arab American communities in the United States.
Bya fifth of the estimatedArabs resided in three cities—New York, Boston, and Detroit. In these urban areas, the immigrants clustered in ethnic neighborhoods. Although many found work in the industrial factories and textile mills that propelled the U.
Others homesteaded on the Great Plains and in rural areas of the South. Very few Arabic-speaking immigrants made their way across the Atlantic during the interwar period marked by the Great Depression and anti-immigrant sentiment.
Immigration resumed, however, after the close of World War II, especially from the s to the mids. Unlike the earlier influx, this second wave included many more Muslims. It also included refugees who had been displaced by the Palestine War that culminated in the establishment of Israel.
This period also witnessed the arrival of many Arabic-speaking professionals and university students who often chose to remain in the United States after completion of their training. Immigrants of the second wave tended to settle where jobs were available.
Those with few skills drifted to the established Arab communities in the industrial towns of the East coast and Midwest, while those with professional skills ventured to the new suburbs around the major industrial cities or to rural towns.
In the mids, a third wave of Arab immigration began which continues to the present. According to El-Badry, more than 75 percent of foreign-born Arab Americans identified in the census immigrated afterwhile 44 percent immigrated between and This influx resulted in part from the passage of the Immigration Act of which abolished the quota system and its bias against non-European immigration.Business Day.
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For all my family, relatives and friends living and deceased. Please pray for my children and they struggle to . Abraham Lincoln and Salmon P. Chase Salmon P. Chase was “dignified, able and ambitious, likewise he is the special antipathy of the New York Herald, and the mirror of perfection for the New York Times, whose Washington staff of correspondents are the favorites of Mr.
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