Consumers buy either products or services.
In order to help reduce this confusion, the present paper identifies and discusses five distinct concepts which have all been labeled "involvement". The concepts of ego involvement, commitment, communication involvement, purchase importance, and response involvement are discussed as they relate to this evolving body of knowledge.
Interest in involvement has heightened in recent years by those studying the consumer decision process. Kassarjian has accused consumer researchers of anthropomorphism when they infer that buyers are always as involved in the purchasing process as they themselves are.
Olshavsky and Granbois took Kassarjian's view of the low involvement consumer a step further. They argued that "for many purchases a decision process never occurs, not even on the first purchase" p. As a result, a school of thought has developed which questions whether the classical view of the consumer holds for all purchase occasions.
An emergent idea is that of the low involvement buyer: This new approach can be seen in several consumer behavior texts which devote special sections to involvement or the low involvement decision process e.
Thus involvement is becoming a key element of consumer behavior thought. Since the topic of consumer involvement has only recently begun to gain researchers ' interest, there exists the need for a significant amount of empirical research in the area.
Such research will require the operationalization of involvement.
However, before this can be done, researchers need to develop a clear understanding as to its nature. Jacoby and Kyner state: Regardless of how sophisticated the operationalizations, before a phenomenon can be measured one must clearly define what it is and what it is not.
According to the logic of modern science Bridgmansuch conceptual definitions ought to precede and determine one's operationalization rather than vice versa. Such agreement does not presently exist. Lastovicka and Gardner state that there is "no clear statement or agreement on what this concept involvement represents" p.
Upon reviewing the involvement literature, the reason for such confusion becomes clear. The term "involvement" has been used by researchers to denote at least five distinct yet perhaps related concepts. Though some researchers acknowledge the existence of different types of involvement see Houston and Rothschild undated; Lastovicka and Gardner ; Mitchell ; Rothschildmost researchers fail to make a clear statement as to which concept they are investigating.
The purpose of the present paper is two-fold. First, it separates and discusses the various concepts which have been labeled "involvement. Only those papers which best typify each concept are discussed. The purpose is to explain the fundamental nature of each.
Secondly, the present paper discusses those research areas which are particularly relevant to each type of involvement.
Just as they are all distinctLy different concepts, they all contribute to consumer behavior thought in different fashions. The purpose here is to point to potentiaL research needs that each has fulfilled or can fulfill.
Such a discussion is needed to add direction to this area which has been described as being a "bag of worms" Lastovicka and Gardner ; p. We propose that there are basically five concepts which have all been studied under the topic of "involvement": It can be defined as the degree to which an object or idea is centrally related to the value system of an individual see Ostrom and Brock A classic example of how a product can become ego involving was illustrated by Haire Se showed that women related the type of coffee purchased i.
Though coffee may no longer be as ego involving see Hill ; Webster and von Pechmanncertainly substantial ego involvement exists within other product classes.
In consumer behavior, the study of ego involvement addresses the question of how a consumer's value system is engaged when purchasing a product.
For this reason, the construct of ego involvement can provide insights when researching areas which involve consumer values or value systems e. Ego involvement is probably also related to the other types of involvement discussed in this paper.
Commitment Commitment is another concept which has been studied under involvement. The distinction between ego involvement and commitment was never fully resolved in the social psychology literature.
Freedman noted that many authors fail to distinguish between involvement with a particular position on an issue which would be commitment and invoLvement with the issue itself. Some have also failed to make this distinction in marketing. Robertson's work, and those citing it, uses the terms involvement and commitment synonymously.
Further, Lastovicka and Gardner identify commitment as one of two underlying components of involvement. Consumers can become committed to a brand or store when that brand or store becomes ego involving to them.
Many organizations have tried to produce such commitment by attempting to tie their product to the central value systems of individuals examples are prevalent in the product classes of personal hygiene and alcohol.Consumer Behaviour in the purchase of High and Low involvement Essay Sample Consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in seeking, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their personal needs.
High Involvement and Low Involvement in Searching for Product Information Words | 7 Pages High-Tech, Low-Involvement: Changing Consumers’ Search for Information The internet has made it significantly easier for consumers to conduct an information search during the consumer .
The High / Low involvement scale refers to how much time, thought, energy and other resources people devote to the purchase process, from a lot to a little. The Emotional / Rational scale is a measure of reason vs.
impulse, desire vs. logic, passion vs.
prudence. Module - 6 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Sangeeta Sahney Assistant Professor, compare the various brands against each other on the basis of the information, assess differences and similarities between the is complex for a high involvement consumer than for one on low involvement.
Levels of involvement range from high to low (Choubtarash, Mahdieh, and Marnani, ). It has been established that the process of purchasing differs due to this. In other words, different consumers will adopt different purchasing involvement processes for the same product.
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