Epistemology[ edit ] The word Self-consciousness in the Upanishads means the knowledge about the existence and nature of Brahman. It means the consciousness of our own real being, the primary reality.
Jainism too accepts this premise, though it has its own idea of what that means. In Hinduism, self-knowledge is the knowledge and understanding of Atman, what it is, and what it is not. Hinduism considers Atman as distinct from the ever-evolving individual personality characterized with Ahamkara ego, non-spiritual psychological I-ness Me-nesshabits, prejudices, desires, impulses, delusions, fads, behaviors, pleasures, sufferings and fears.
Human personality and Ahamkara shift, evolve or change with time, state the schools of Hinduism; while, Atman doesn't.
In contrast, devotional sub-schools of Vedanta such as Dvaita dualism differentiate between the individual Atma in living beings, and the supreme Atma Paramatma as being separate. Dvaita Vedanta calls the Atman of a supreme being as " Paramatman ", and holds it to be different from individual Atman.
Dvaita scholars assert that God is the ultimate, complete, perfect, but distinct soul, one that is separate from incomplete, imperfect jivas individual souls. Dvaita school, states Graham Oppy, is not strict monotheism, as it does not deny existence of other gods and their respective Atman.
Within Mimamsa school, there was divergence of beliefs.
The Upanishadic discussion of Atman, to them, was of secondary importance. Time and space are indivisible reality, but human mind prefers to divide them to comprehend past, present, future, relative place of other substances and beings, direction and its own coordinates in the universe.
John Plott  states that the Nyaya scholars developed a theory of negation that far exceeds Hegel 's theory of negationwhile their epistemological theories refined to "know the knower" at least equals Aristotle's sophistication.
Nyaya methodology influenced all major schools of Hinduism. One, they went beyond holding it as "self evident" and offered rational proofs, consistent with their epistemology, in their debates with Buddhists, that "Atman exists".
It also states that soul is a real substance that can be inferred from certain signs, objectively perceivable attributes. Further, they both consider self-knowledge as the means of liberation, freedom and bliss.
The difference between Samkhya and Advaita is that Samkhya holds there are as many Atmans as there are beings, each distinct reality unto itself, and self-knowledge a state of Ipseity.
In contrast, the monism theme of Advaita holds that there is one soul, and that the self of all beings are connected and unified with Brahman. Samkhya asserts that each being's Atman is unique and different.
Some earlier mentions of Atman in Yogasutra include verse 2. These verses also set the purpose of all experience as a means to self-knowledge.
Ātma (/ ˈ ɑː t m ə /) is a Sanskrit word that is equated to inner self or heartoftexashop.com is described in the Bhagavad Gita as being unborn, eternal, omnipresent, constant, and immovable. In Hindu philosophy, especially in the Vedanta school of Hinduism, Ātman is the first principle, the true self of an individual beyond identification with phenomena, the essence of an individual. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah Lord Ram. Lord Ram, the dark skinned God - is the seventh Avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu. Born during the second age of the world called Treta Yuga, he is the immortal hero of the great religious epic of India, the Ramayana.. Refer to chapter on Hindu Scriptures.. Lord Ram, the most famous incarnation of God, appeared on Rama-navami (Chaitra 9).
Though pure, modifications are witnessed by him by coloring of intellect. The spectacle exists only to serve the purpose of the Atman. It is the self that is discovered and realized in the Kaivalya state, in both schools.
Vedanta monism, for example, adopted Yoga as a means to reach Jivanmukti — self-realization in this life — as conceptualized in Advaita Vedanta.
Influence of Atman theory on Hindu Ethics[ edit ] Ahimsanon-violence, is considered the highest ethical value and virtue in Hinduism.In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.
It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is . The Indian festival of lights, Diwali, is considered to be an ‘Hindu’ festival, where people practising Hinduism celebrate the return of Lord Rama after killing an evil demon, Ravana.
Self-consciousness is a positive experience. It is the direct realization of the immortal Brahman - he enters into My Being - Bhagavad Gita XIV who is the ground of the imperishable Brahman, of immortality, of the eternal virtue and of unending immutable bliss - Bhagavad Gita XIV INTRODUCTION TO DEEPAVALI (a.k.a.
DIWALI) The word Diwali came from Deepavali, which means “row of lights”. Deepavali is the most widely celebrated festival in India. The festival lasts typically for five days.
The most important meaning of the festival is the celebration of triumph of good over evil. Diwali Celebrations at The Indian Heights School.
It was festive time from 30 th October onwards at TIHS. Diwali season is infectious, with the festive fervor pervading the air. Diwali, Deepavali or Dipavali is the Hindu festival of lights, which is celebrated every autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, Diwali symbolises the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil and knowledge over ignorance." Light is a metaphor for knowledge and consciousness.