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Background[ edit ] Copyright came about with the invention of the printing press and with wider literacy.
Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia.
In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was generally a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of Holder in due course, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society.
The latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the Holder in due course and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property.
However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights. The most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified.
Often seen as the first real copyright law, the British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired. Books, and other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors A right to profit from the work has been the philosophical underpinning for much legislation extending the duration of copyright, to the life of the creator and beyond, to their heirs.
International copyright agreements and List of parties to international copyright agreements The Pirate Publisher—An International Burlesque that has the Longest Run on Record, from Puck, satirizes the then-existing situation where a publisher could profit by simply stealing newly published works from one country, and publishing them in another, and vice versa.
The Berne Convention first established recognition of copyrights among sovereign nationsrather than merely bilaterally. Under the Berne Convention, copyrights for creative works do not have to be asserted or declared, as they are automatically in force at creation: The Berne Convention also resulted in foreign authors being treated equivalently to domestic authors, in any country signed onto the Convention.
Specially, for educational and scientific research purposes, the Berne Convention provides the developing countries issue compulsory licenses for the translation or reproduction of copyrighted works within the limits prescribed by the Convention.
This was a special provision that had been added at the time of revision of the Convention, because of the strong demands of the developing countries. The United States did not sign the Berne Convention until Inthis organization was succeeded by the founding of the World Intellectual Property Organizationwhich launched the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty and the WIPO Copyright Treatywhich enacted greater restrictions on the use of technology to copy works in the nations that ratified it.
Copyright laws are standardized somewhat through these international conventions such as the Berne Convention and Universal Copyright Convention. These multilateral treaties have been ratified by nearly all countries, and international organizations such as the European Union or World Trade Organization require their member states to comply with them.
Ownership[ edit ] The original holder of the copyright may be the employer of the author rather than the author himself if the work is a " work for hire ". Typically, the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i. Copyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or "works".
Specifics vary by jurisdictionbut these can include poemsthesesfictional characters plays and other literary worksmotion pictureschoreographymusical compositionssound recordingspaintingsdrawingssculpturesphotographscomputer softwareradio and television broadcastsand industrial designs.
Graphic designs and industrial designs may have separate or overlapping laws applied to them in some jurisdictions. Threshold of originality Typically, a work must meet minimal standards of originality in order to qualify for copyright, and the copyright expires after a set period of time some jurisdictions may allow this to be extended.
Different countries impose different tests, although generally the requirements are low; in the United Kingdom there has to be some "skill, labour, and judgment" that has gone into it. However, single words or a short string of words can sometimes be registered as a trademark instead.
Copyright law recognizes the right of an author based on whether the work actually is an original creationrather than based on whether it is unique ; two authors may own copyright on two substantially identical works, if it is determined that the duplication was coincidental, and neither was copied from the other.
In all countries where the Berne Convention standards apply, copyright is automatic, and need not be obtained through official registration with any government office.
Once an idea has been reduced to tangible form, for example by securing it in a fixed medium such as a drawing, sheet music, photograph, a videotape, or a computer filethe copyright holder is entitled to enforce his or her exclusive rights.
It proposes that the creator send the work to himself in a sealed envelope by registered mail, using the postmark to establish the date. This technique has not been recognized in any published opinions of the United States courts. The United States Copyright Office says the technique is not a substitute for actual registration.
Article 2, Section 2 of the Berne Convention states: For instance, Spain, France, and Australia do not require fixation for copyright protection. The United States and Canada, on the other hand, require that most works must be "fixed in a tangible medium of expression" to obtain copyright protection.
In addition, the phrase All rights reserved was once required to assert copyright, but that phrase is now legally obsolete. Almost everything on the Internet has some sort of copyright attached to it.LandAjob provides a large database of potential job opportunities that can be searched and filtered by location, job titles, job skills, Federal and non-Federal contractors..
Also, working candidates can take part in reimbursements up to $10, for work related expenses over a three year period for those on SSDI and five years for those on SSI. the holder of a negotiable instrument that is complete and regular on its face and that is taken in good faith and for value without notice that it is overdue or has been dishonored or that there is any defense against it or claim to it by any party — compare bona fide holder Note: A holder in.
The Core Rules of Netiquette are excerpted from the book Netiquette by Virginia Shea. Click on each rule for elaboration. Introduction; Rule 1: Remember the Human; Rule 2: Adhere to the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real life.
Recent Posts. Jobless year-old diploma holder feeling depressed and lost; Jobless PMET used to earn $15,/month now a cabbie and recently lost his family. in due course - Translation to Spanish, pronunciation, and forum discussions.
in due course - Translation to Spanish, pronunciation, and forum discussions.