See Article History Personality assessment, the measurement of personal characteristics. Assessment is an end result of gathering information intended to advance psychological theory and research and to increase the probability that wise decisions will be made in applied settings e. The approach taken by the specialist in personality assessment is based on the assumption that much of the observable variability in behaviour from one person to another results from differences in the extent to which individuals possess particular underlying personal characteristics traits. The assessment specialist seeks to define these traits, to measure them objectively, and to relate them to socially significant aspects of behaviour.
Measurement that Is not dependent on a Judgment by the Individual making the assessment weaknesses Does not allow for details or rich impressions from individuals Strengths More reliable, less biased Subjective Assessment: Measurement that relies on interpretation Weaknesses Different observers may make different Judgments Strengths Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained Types of Personality Measures: Provides an unstructured stimulus, task, or situation to which the person responds The goal is to gain access to unconscious motives and concerns of the individual Examples: The analysis of how people stand, move, speak, etc - How Personality is Studied and Assessed Essay introduction.
Includes the examination of: Speech rate gaze patterns posture gestures Types of Personality Measures: Unstructured interviews Typically yield rich information, but validity is questionable Structured interviews More valid, but usually do not reveal individual nuances e. Someone else answers questions about the person being measured Some traits are easier to Judge than others Can use ratings from parents, teachers, friends, spouses, psychologists, etc.
Construct validity The extent to which a test truly measures a theoretical construct. Choose Type of service.The History of Personality Theory and Assessment | 4 Eduard Spranger, a German philosopher, theorized four attitudes towards ethical values.
He named . Personality assessment, the measurement of personal characteristics. Assessment is an end result of gathering information intended to advance psychological theory and research and to increase the probability that wise decisions will be made in applied settings (e.g., in selecting the most promising people from a group of job applicants).
Widely studied personality constructs include anxiety, hostility, emotionality, motivation, and introversion-extroversion.
Anxiety, for example, is a concept, or construct, inferred in people from what they say, their facial expressions, and their body movements. A method of assessing personality by applying personality theories to the study and analysis of diaries, letters, and other personal records.
It is one of the few ways to achieve a comprehensive understanding of an individual across time; can be a very rich source of information. This chapter first explains the importance of careful measurement, then goes on to talk about reliability and validity.
Response sets and other biases are explained. . Case Studies In depth study of an individual Correlation Studies Assess degree of relationship between two variables Positive correlation; Negative correlation Correlation does not equal causation Experimental Studies Allow for Inferences about causality Independent variable; Dependent variable Types of Personality Measures: Self-Report Tests usually pencil and paper tests Most common type of.