Major Resources What do we own, where is it, what is it worth, how fast are we using it up, and what should we do with it? Typically, Real Property includes land and anything permanently affixed to it, such as buildings, their installed systems, building equipment, and can include roads, parking facilities, fences, utility systems, structures, etc.
The test location was later localized at 47 deg. Due to the position ambiguity of the initial detection the Vela optical sensors were not imaging sensors and could did not detect locationthe Specific objective inventory system is variously described as being in the Indian Ocean or South Atlantic.
The characteristics of the light curve indicated that it was a low kiloton explosion approximately 3 kt. The hydroacoustic signal indicated a low altitude explosion. A major and lingering controversy erupted over the interpretation of this apparent detection. The Vela satellite program was an nuclear detonation NUDET detection system setup after the limited test Specific objective inventory system and was designed to detect nuclear explosions in space and later air.
There were two groups of Vela satellites developed. The original Vela were equipped only with sensors for space detection and were launched in three pairs between and They operated for at least five years, far beyond their nominal design life of six months. A second generation called Advanced Vela were launched inand These satellites added "bahngmeters" - optical sensors for detecting atmospheric tests - and had a nominal design life of 18 months, but were later rated with a seven year lifespan, although they were all operated for more than ten years, with the last one being turned off in -- after 14 years of successful operation [JPL ] ; [Astronautix ].
Vela is presumably one of the Advanced Vela pair launch launched on 23 May perigee 77, km, apogeekm, inclination The Vela satellite system had previously made 41 similar detections of atmospheric tests, each of which had been subsequently confirmed through other means. The detection came at a bad time for the Carter administration which would be under pressure to take definite action if the detection were accepted as accurate.
Inescapably it seemed that either Israel, South Africa, or both, would be implicated. Consequently a panel of scientists from academia known as the Ruina Panel, after its head Dr. Jack Ruina, was created to review the reliability of the Vela data.
Since this satellite was operating past its expected lifespan, and its electromagnetic pulse EMP sensor was inoperative, questions about the reliability of the detection were raised. The panel ultimately concluded in a report released in the summer of that the signal "was probably not from a nuclear explosion.
Although we cannot rule out that this signal was of nuclear origin". This conclusion has cast a pall over public confidence in the ability of the U. Advanced Vela 5 The Start of the Controversy The instruments used by the Vela satellites for detecting atmospheric nuclear explosions are called "bhangmeters".
These are optical sensors that record light fluctuations on a sub-millisecond time scale. All atmospheric nuclear explosions produce a unique and easy to detect signature: The second peak may take from hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds to develop, depending on the size of the explosion, and lasts a comparable period of time.
This phenomenon occurs because the surface of the early fireball is quickly overtaken by the expanding hydrodynamic shock wave. This shock wave acts as an optical shutter, hiding the small but extremely hot and bright early fireball behind an opaque ionized shock front which is comparatively quite dim.
No natural phenomenon is known that can imitate this signature. In fact it is reported that no false alarms have ever been detected with a Vela bhangmeter. Every other double-flash detection has later been confirmed to be an actual nuclear test.
According to Seymour Hersh, the idea of referring this detection to an advisory panel was floated before any potential problems with the detection had been noted. An urgent meeting to discuss the handling of this event was held in the White House situation room soon after the intelligence report on the incident reached the Oval Office.
At this meeting the probability of a nuclear test was placed at 90 percent or better. Either Keeny or Press accounts of the participants vary suggested convening a panel - at least as much as a delaying tactic as an effort to ensure that the data was carefully evaluated [Hersh ].
There is no question that a confirmed detection of a nuclear test would have put the Carter administration in a very difficult position.
President Carter had placed great emphasis on nuclear non-proliferation. The administration had been a troubled one, with the recent collapse of a major ally in the Middle East Iran as one of many problems. The upcoming re-election campaign was certain to be an uphill battle.Specific Objectives • To develop a sales module that will handle transaction.
A Study of Computerized Sales and Inventory System for Nelson & Lily Store with barcode Introduction Information System (IS) is processing of information received and transmitted to produce an efficient and effective process. General Objective To create.
Objective tests are measures in which responses maximize objectivity, in the sense that response options are structured such that examinees have only a limited set of options (e.g.
Likert scale, true or false). Structuring a measure in this way is intended to minimize subjectivity or bias on the part of the individual administering the measure so that administering and interpreting the results.
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